Abstract: The aim of this article is to test a methodology for the optimisation of capital structure in Bulgarian companies, adapted for Bulgarian conditions, on the basis of fundamental company indicators and stock exchange rates over the period 2010 – 2013. A similar methodology provides the answer to a series of questions and solves significant problems faced by business practice, related to the realisation of the main purpose of financial managers in Bulgarian companies – maximising stock wealth. The achievement of this aim is based on the effect of financial leverage on the profit of one share and its stock exchange capitalisation. This research ascertains the complete improvement of post-crisis interest conditions for business credit by financial institutions to companies in our country. Within the range of the research, we identify seventeen separate issues in the field of applied capital optimisation which require precise financial and investment circumstances and appropriate solutions.