Abstract: Nowadays, the cooperation is considered as one of the basic paths of enterprise development. For many entities, it is a chance of improving or increasing competitiveness, for others it is a necessity because the lack of cooperation could cause serious perturbations. However, it is emphasized that the decision to cooperate must be conscious. The effect can be on one hand the benefits, on the other hand there is the possibility of generating losses. Due to the fact that most of the relations between the cooperating companies are antagonistic, it is worth considering the factors that guarantee the effectiveness of cooperation. This paper attempts to identify the key factors that favour and limit the effectiveness of inter-organizational collaboration. The first part of the paper presents theoretical reflections on the essence and nature of cooperation. The second one focuses on the result analysis of a survey on determinants of cooperation conducted during the year 2015 on a sample of 192 entities.
Abstract: Achieving a sustainable competitive advantage depends on the innovations which are largely dependent on the online marketing that initiates the use of social networks which enable the improvement of long-term relationships of the company and the focus on the particular target group. Their best results are achieved as a result of the creativity and they are ideal medium which does not require huge money investment, but energy, thinking, time and knowledge. The investment in marketing activities in the social network cannot be considered as a simple venture but as a management of several goals: the user should get to know the brand, interaction of the user with the brand and oral transmitting of the message.
The paper focuses on the analysis of social networks and their influence in the direction of promoting two-way, i.e. interactive communication with consumers. On the other side, in the paper answers will be given to the question: “Which of the social networks are the most effective tools for promotion?” The results show that the applications of modern and innovative methods in the field of internet marketing are crucial for distinguishing and creating a competitive advantage.
Abstract: Over the last decade in Bulgaria medical institutions for health care have functioned in an unsustainable and unfavorable environment. This is particularly true for hospitals in towns or villages as some of them have gone bankrupt, while many of them have terminated their activities.
As regards the number of hospitals per 100,000 people, Bulgaria is among the countries of the EU-27 with a relatively large number of hospitals – over 4.44 per 100,000 people. This is a third more than the average ratio of the EU-27 member states and 50% more than the new EU member states from Eastern Europe. This is why research into hospitals takes into account a problem which is very serious for Bulgaria, namely, the activities undertaken and their effectiveness. This article argues for the thesis that the government must stop the uncontrolled growth of medical institu¬tions for health care and introduce a new system of funding according to which the patient must be treated in a complex way, not according to a clinical pathway, because costs do not meet the real expenses of the treatment of a patient with a particular diag¬nosis.
Abstract: This article discusses the theoretical and practical aspects of medium-term planning and budgeting at local level in contemporary Ukraine. The author emphasises that the completion of functions by local authority bodies in Ukraine require the realisation of effective measures and actions guaranteed by corresponding budgetary programmes. One significant aspect of the problem is the effectiveness of monitoring the completion of local budget programmes.
The article contains particular proposals regarding the budgetary reform carried out in Ukraine – the introduction of medium-term budget planning at both state and local level.