Abstract: The impact of brands has become more powerful than ever in the contemporary world and brand managers are aware that brand growth and expansion are essential for the increase of sales and the development of companies in general. Leading companies like Xerox and Coca-Cola report that brand is as important to their performance as factories, innovations and capital are, since powerful brands attract wealthy customers and investors. The concept of brand equity has been widely employed lately. It refers to the financial worth which adds to the physical properties of tangible assets and of products in particular. Brand equity is in essence the measurement of the value added. The objective of this paper is to present contemporary methods for valuating brand equity and to provide a comparative analysis of their employment. In-depth knowledge about global practices in brand equity valuation is of fundamental importance to designing a successful and efficient branding strategy.
Abstract: The aim of the article is to present key features of the business model as a mental construction and to summarise successful practices of universities around the world that have implemented innovative management solutions to overcome crises. Osterwalder and Pigneur’s concept of business model and its applicability to higher education are considered. Variants of business models of different universities are analysed and crisis management approaches are synthesised in a summary model, with special attention paid to practices during the Covid-19 Global Crisis. The peculiarities of the analysis of the strategic risk after external threats are considered. Special emphasis is put on reviewing of business models in the context of new constraints and disturbed balance of revenues and expenditures. Timely reassessment of the business model can be a transition from a reactive to a proactive strategy and protect the organisation, at least in part, from the effects of future crises.