Abstract: According to statistical data, modern development of the innovation activity in Russia has positive trends – Russia’s positions in the Global Innovation Index have improved, the relative share of the organisations engaged in innovation has increased and the volume of shipped innovative products has gone up in the total volume of exports. However, even these positive trends are not enough to bridge the gap between Russia and the developed countries. The problems of low effectiveness of innovation in Russia, according to the authors, are related to the problems and risks that arise in enterprises that commercialize innovation.
The process of commercialisation of innovation has its own specifics and depending on the degree of participation of the innovation developers in it, it could be realised through three different methods – independent use, partial assignment of rights to use innovations, full transfer of rights to use it. The problems and risks which the enterprises may face in the process of commercializing innovations, are presented by the authors in relation to each method. The article also features some authors’ proposals for speeding up the innovation implementation by enterprises.