Abstract: The application of Directive 2013/34/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on annual financial statements, consolidated financial statements, and related reports of certain types of undertakings required the introduction of some changes in current accounting regulations in Bulgaria. This paper focuses on issues related to applying the new Accountancy Act and some of the contradictions which have arisen as a result.
Abstract: The evolution of financial analysis is accompanied by an extensive use of indicators whose calculation is based on data provided both by entities in their financial statements and by financial markets. The analysis of data and indicators generated by the capital market is considered to be of primary importance when studying the financial position of enterprises. This view is supported by a substantial number of analysts and, although not applicable to all enterprises, it raises a number of questions, two of them being whether the new analytical indicators are replacing the classic indicators of financial statement analysis and whether financial statements have retained their fundamental role as a primary source of data in studying the financial position of enterprises. The objective of this paper is to answer these questions by approaching the interpretation of financial statements within the context of some unorthodox views about the evolution of financial analysis.
Abstract: Regulation is an integral part of present day economic system management at national, regional, and global levels. However, its role is strongly influenced by a number of processes taking place worldwide such as integration, internationalization, regionalization and globalization. The aim of this study is to identify major trends in the regulation of economic activity, taking into account its dimensions – political, procedural, structural, social, and economic. The article examines the nature and types of regulations, the retrospective aspect of the regulatory function of the state as well as new aspects of regulation by applying approaches to the systematization and theoretical enrichment of the concept of regulation.
Abstract: The paper presents the evolution of economic thought from its birth in ancient Eastern societies till present day, in terms of different approaches to property; the need of laws; state intervention and regulations. We review major economic theories within the historical context in which they appeared to arrive at arguments in favour of or against state intervention in the economy of a nation, in contrast to the effects produced by the ‘invisible hand’ of the market.
Abstract: This paper is based on a research conducted among 80 administration groups of the executive authority. The aim of the survey was to measure the administrative capacity of those groups by 44 indicators. Respondents were selected according to the structure of the state administration formed by the number of employees in each unit of administration. The findings of the research were analysed by computing the average values of the scores of capacity; by employing average weighted values and by determining the uncertainty factor when assessing the capacity of different structures of state administration. We have designed a new, aggregate index for measuring administrative capacity – the Index of the administrative capacity of state administration for good governance. By employing that index, we are able to monitor the systematic progress in terms of current concepts about administrative capacity, applicable to the entire system of state administration.
Abstract: Financial statements must present the property, financial position, and performance of entities truly and honestly. Managers, however, may influence users’ perception of information by altering the manner in which this information is presented in financial statements. The objective of this paper is to employ a slightly different approach based on the specific features of the parties involved in the information-exchange process, i.e. users (with their expectations and constraints) and managers (with their goals and motives) and review different methods and techniques applied by managers to manipulate users’ perception of the information presented in financial statements.
Abstract: The IAS adopted in Bulgaria following its accession to the European Union introduced some new terms in the field of accounting, such as “accounting policy”, “accounting estimate”, and “accounting error”. Generally, the indigenous scepticism of professional accountants is an obstacle to their accepting the new knowledge and points of view and subsequently applying them in practice. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibilities of unifying the professional competence of accountants and auditors in terms of using accounting estimates in financial statements of non-financial enterprises in compliance with the accounting legislation in force.
In order to achieve this aim, the author has tried to outline the different meanings attributed to this term by accountants and auditors in related standards.
Abstract: The information presented in the financial statements must share certain characteristics so as to be useful to primary users. Not infrequently, in Bulgarian reporting practice, it is easy to note inconsistencies in the financial statements which are published since although those statements formally meet the legal requirements, they fail to provide complete or timely financial information to stakeholders. The objective of this research is to ascertain (based on a representative sample) whether enterprises, which are major tax payers and contributors to the social security system, published complete and timely financial statements in the Commercial Register over the period from 2007 to 2014.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the relationship between the state, individuals, employers, and universities based on methods of quantification. The conclusion drawn is that higher education is the basis for socio-economic development and efficiency of the labour market, which could be used by governments in the formation of a policy regarding higher education through the vocational and qualification conformity indicator.
Abstract: The article deals with the problems of insurance integration processes in the EAEU. The strategic directions of state regulation of the reinsurance market of the Republic of Belarus have been identified. It is determined that there is no a single legislative act regulating reinsurance activities in Belarusian legislation. State regulation of reinsurance relies on the current insurance legislation. The analysis of financial stability in EAEU is based on the Solvency I criteria.
In the EU countries the risk-based approach to financial stability for the insur-ance sector is offered. However, neither of these approaches can be fully applied in the Republic of Belarus due to the methods of the analysis, which are based on hypothetical scenarios of market developments and may have a high degree of unreliability.
It is determined that in reinsurance, it is necessary to assess the reliability of a reinsur-ance organization not only on the basis of an analysis of financial indicators, but to make a complex study of the financial stability of a reinsurer. It was concluded that the above methodology makes it possible to objectively analysis of a reinsurer reliability and can help to develop a set of measures aimed at raising it.