Abstract: Age is one of the qualifying conditions which entitle insured persons to receive cash benefits from insurances for old age. Nevertheless, at this stage, the practice of linking the amount of pensions to the age at which they are awarded is rather limited in pensions insurance practice. The objective of this research is to study the significance of age to the pension insurance systems of EU states and hence propose a mechanism which makes it possible to link the amount of pensions for insurance periods and age in Bulgaria to the average life expectancy after retirement.
Abstract: Three financial coverage systems are known and applied in the theory and practice of pension insurance: cost coverage, capital coverage and premium coverage. These systems show how operating pension costs will be allocated over time as well as among those insured. The common thing between them is that they are based on a large aggregate insurance and on the principle of mutual assistance and solidarity between the participants. In the cost coverage system and the capital coverage system solidarity encompasses all age generations while in the premium coverage system the principle of mutual assistance is spread over a particular age generation.
Some of the regulations in the Social Security Code make it impossible to apply the financial systems already mentioned in supplementary pension insurance. This strongly impedes actuary calculations and the effective allocation of the accrued pension funds.
The results obtained from the numerical example calculated in this article clearly show that it is necessary to reconsider certain passages in the Social Security Code and consequently to proceed from an individual to a collective allocation of supplementary pension insurance funds.
Abstract: The article deals with the issues of insuring the environmental pollution risk in economic enterprises. In addition, the research outlines the structure of the environment with reference to the operations of enterprises with hazardous waste production; it also analyses the elements of the environment and the risk factors, which determine the risk situations in the industrial enterprises. Finally, the article discusses the primary role of environmental pollution liability insurance within the concept of risk management in the industrial enterprises.
Abstract: The article presents insurable risk as the necessity which determines the decision of signing an insurance contract. It also outlines all relationships between the insurer and the insured which are presented as the driving force behind the motivation for using various insurance services. An emphasis is put on the fact that insurable interest is a specific concept from insurance law and cannot be identified with the concept of “interest” as it is used in everyday life. The article also discusses certain definitions and statements regarding insurable interest expressed by a number of authors, including foreign ones, who worked in this field. The authors support the idea that not only a particular insured party has an insurable risk but also the entire insurance pool.
Abstract: The article addresses moral damages inflicted as a result of road accidents, in terms of motor third-party liability insurance. We explain the nature of moral damages and analyse their relevance to the activity of insurance carriers. Special attention is paid to the major factors that cause moral damages. We also review the main stages in ascertaining inflicted moral damages and give some recommendations about the process. The underlying idea of this article is that an Ordinance on the Ascertainment of Moral Damages must be designed. In conclusion, a methodology for determining liability limits is proposed.
Abstract: Insurance companies in Bulgaria develop their business in a market economy. Therefore, insurers are constantly striving to achieve competitive advantage. As a result of the competitive struggle between companies in the insurance market, an appropriate range of products is offered at the best possible conditions and consumer prices, and the quality and efficiency of the insurance protection is increased. The present article determines the shape and strength of competition in the general insurance market in Bulgaria for the period 2008-2012. It was found that only in mass contracting of insurances, the insurance companies operate in highly competitive environments. The market of less popular insurances is characterized by an oligopolistic structure. In the offering of some of them, there is even monopoly.
Abstract: This article discusses insurance culture as a factor in the develop¬ment of the insurance business. The author assumes that the image of insurers is directly dependent on insurance culture.
Special attention is paid to management and its role in raising the level of in-surance culture. On the basis of practical experience, insurance culture is related to the specific aspects of an insurance service.
It is assumed that in order for the level of insurance culture to be raised, a certain role is played by advertising.
The author also gives proof not only of the necessity of raising the insurance culture of the employees of an insurance company, but also of the potential users of insurance products.
Abstract: This study presents the results of an empirical research on the status and trends in the development of agricultural insurance in Bulgaria conducted in 2015. Data is systematized and analyzed; the dynamics of the development of agricultural insurance in Bulgaria for the period 2010-2014 is also studied. It was found out that agricultural producers express great interest in purchasing agricultural insurance. As a result, there is a significant increase in the scope of agricultural insurance in the Bulgarian insurance market.
Abstract: The article deals with the problems of insurance integration processes in the EAEU. The strategic directions of state regulation of the reinsurance market of the Republic of Belarus have been identified. It is determined that there is no a single legislative act regulating reinsurance activities in Belarusian legislation. State regulation of reinsurance relies on the current insurance legislation. The analysis of financial stability in EAEU is based on the Solvency I criteria.
In the EU countries the risk-based approach to financial stability for the insur-ance sector is offered. However, neither of these approaches can be fully applied in the Republic of Belarus due to the methods of the analysis, which are based on hypothetical scenarios of market developments and may have a high degree of unreliability.
It is determined that in reinsurance, it is necessary to assess the reliability of a reinsur-ance organization not only on the basis of an analysis of financial indicators, but to make a complex study of the financial stability of a reinsurer. It was concluded that the above methodology makes it possible to objectively analysis of a reinsurer reliability and can help to develop a set of measures aimed at raising it.